Summer Olympics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. The 2. 01. 2 Summer Olympics, formally the Games of the XXX Olympiad and commonly known as London 2.
Olympic Games, as governed by the International Olympic Committee (IOC). It took place in London and to a lesser extent across the United Kingdom from 2. July to 1. 2 August 2. The first event, the group stage in women's football began on 2.
July at the Millennium Stadium in Cardiff, followed by the opening ceremonies on 2. July. 1. 0,7. National Olympic Committees (NOCs) participated.Following a bid headed by former Olympic champion Sebastian Coe and then- Mayor of London. Ken Livingstone, London was selected as the host city on 6 July 2. IOC Session in Singapore, defeating bids from Moscow, New York City, Madrid, and Paris. London is the first and only city thus far to host the modern Olympic Games three times, having previously done so in 1. Construction for the Games involved considerable redevelopment, with an emphasis on sustainability.[1.
The main focus was a new 2. Olympic Park, constructed on a former industrial site at Stratford, East London.[1. The Games also made use of venues that already existed before the bid.[1. The Games received widespread acclaim for their organisation, with the volunteers, the British military and public enthusiasm praised particularly highly.[1. The opening ceremony, directed by Danny Boyle, received widespread acclaim throughout the world, particular praise from the British public and a minority of widely ranging criticisms from some social media sites.[1.
During the Games, Michael Phelps became the most decorated Olympic athlete of all time, winning his 2. Saudi Arabia, Qatar, and Brunei entered female athletes for the first time, so that every currently eligible country has sent a female competitor to at least one Olympic Games.[2. Women's boxing was included for the first time, thus the Games became the first at which every sport had female competitors.[2. They were also the first Olympics where every participating country included female athletes.[2.
These were the final Olympic Games under the IOC presidency of Jacques Rogge. The final medal tally was led by the United States, followed by China and host Great Britain. Several world and Olympic records were set at the games.
Though there were several controversies, the 2. Furthermore, the focus on sporting legacy and post- games venue sustainability was seen as a blueprint for future Olympics.
Bidding processBy 1. July 2. 00. 3, the deadline for interested cities to submit bids to the International Olympic Committee (IOC), nine cities had submitted bids to host the 2. Summer Olympics: Havana, Istanbul, Leipzig, London, Madrid, Moscow, New York City, Paris and Rio de Janeiro.[2. On 1. 8 May 2. 00. IOC reduced the number of cities to five: London, Madrid, Moscow, New York and Paris.[2. All five submitted their candidate files by 1. November 2. 00. 4 and were visited by the IOC inspection team during February and March 2.
The Olympic Games are one of the most effective international marketing platforms in the world, reaching billions of people in over 200 countries and territories.
The Paris bid suffered two setbacks during the IOC inspection visit: a number of strikes and demonstrations coinciding with the visits, and a report that a key member of the bid team, Guy Drut, would face charges over alleged corrupt party political finances.[2. Lord Coe â€“ the head of the London 2. Throughout the process, Paris was widely seen as the favourite, particularly as this was its third bid in recent years.
London was initially seen as lagging behind Paris by a considerable margin. Its position began to improve after the appointment of Lord Coe as the new head of London 2. May 2. 00. 4.[2. 7] In late August 2. London and Paris.[2. On 6 June 2. 00. 5, the IOC released its evaluation reports for the five candidate cities.
The independent London Olympics 2012 website. News and comment for the London Oympics.
They did not contain any scores or rankings, but the report for Paris was considered the most positive. London was close behind, having closed most of the gap observed by the initial evaluation in 2. New York and Madrid also received very positive evaluations.[2. On 1 July 2. 00. 5, when asked who would win, Jacques Rogge said, "I cannot predict it since I don't know how the IOC members will vote.
But my gut feeling tells me that it will be very close. Perhaps it will come down to a difference of say ten votes, or maybe less."[3. On 6 July 2. 00. 5, the final selection was announced at the 1. IOC Session in Singapore. Moscow was the first city to be eliminated, followed by New York and Madrid.
The final two contenders were London and Paris. At the end of the fourth round of voting, London won the right to host the 2. Games with 5. 4 votes to Paris' 5. The celebrations in London were short- lived, being overshadowed by bombings on London's transport system less than 2. Development and preparationThe London Organising Committee of the Olympic Games (LOCOG) was created to oversee the staging of the Games after the success of the bid, and held its first board meeting on 3 October 2.
The committee, chaired by Lord Coe, was in charge of implementing and staging the Games, while the Olympic Delivery Authority (ODA) was in charge of the construction of the venues and infrastructure.[3. The latter was established in April 2. The Government Olympic Executive (GOE), a unit within the Department for Culture, Media and Sport (DCMS), was the lead government body for coordinating the London 2.
Olympics. It focused on oversight of the Games, cross- programme programme management and the London 2. Olympic Legacy before and after the Games that would benefit London and the United Kingdom. The organisation was also responsible for the supervision of the Â£9. In August 2. 01. 1, security concerns arose surrounding the hosting of the Olympic Games in London[3. England riots, with a few countries expressing fear over the safety of the Games,[3.
International Olympic Committee's assurance that the riots would not affect the Games.[3. The IOC's Coordination Commission for the 2. Games completed its tenth and final visit to London in March 2. Its members concluded that "London is ready to host the world this summer".[3.
The 2. 01. 2 Olympic and Paralympic Games used a mixture of new venues, existing and historic facilities, and temporary facilities, some of them in well- known locations such as Hyde Park and Horse Guards Parade. After the Games, some of the new facilities will be reused in their Olympic form, while others will be resized or relocated.[4.
The majority of venues have been divided into three zones within Greater London: the Olympic Zone, the River Zone and the Central Zone. In addition there are a few venues that, by necessity, are outside the boundaries of Greater London, such as the Weymouth and Portland National Sailing Academy some 1. London, which hosted the sailing events. The football tournament was staged at several grounds around the UK.[4. Work began on the Park in December 2. Eton Manor was pulled down.[4.
The athletes' village in Portland was completed in September 2. In November 2. 00. Olympic Park plans were revealed.[4. The plans for the site were approved in September 2. Tower Hamlets, Newham, Hackney and Waltham Forest.[4. The redevelopment of the area to build the Olympic Park required compulsory purchase orders of property.
The London Development Agency was in dispute with London and Continental Railways about the orders in November 2. By May 2. 00. 6, 8. Residents who opposed the eviction tried to find ways to stop it by setting up campaigns, but they had to leave as 9. There were some issues with the original venues not being challenging enough or being financially unviable.
Both the Olympic road races and the mountain bike event were initially considered to be too easy, so they were eventually scheduled on new locations.[4. The Olympic marathon course, which was set to finish in the Olympic stadium, was moved to The Mall, since closing Tower Bridge was deemed to cause traffic problems in central London.[5. North Greenwich Arena 2 was scrapped in a cost- cutting exercise, Wembley Arena being used for badminton and rhythmic gymnastics events instead.[5. Test events were held throughout 2. Wimbledon Championships or as a specially created event held under the banner of London Prepares.[5. Public transportLondon's public transport scored poorly in the IOC's initial evaluation; however, it felt that, if the improvements were delivered in time for the Games, London would cope.[5.
Transport for London (Tf. L) carried out numerous improvements in preparation for 2. London Overground's East London Line, upgrades to the Docklands Light Railway and the North London Line, and the introduction of a new "Javelin" high- speed rail service.[5.
According to Network Rail, an additional 4,0. Games, and train operators ran longer trains during the day.[5. During the Games, Stratford International station was not served by any international services (just as it had not been before the Games),[5.
Hackney Wick railway station,[6. Pudding Mill Lane DLR station closed entirely during the Games.[6. Tf. L also built a Â£2. River Thames, called the Emirates Air Line, to link 2. Olympics venues.[6. It was inaugurated in June 2.
Thames between Greenwich Peninsula and the Royal Docks, carrying up to 2,5. O2 arena and the Ex. Ce. L exhibition centre and providing a crossing every 3. The plan was to have 8. The Olympic Park would be served by ten separate railway lines with a combined capacity of 2. In addition, LOCOG planned for 9. Two park- and- ride sites off the M2.
Olympic Park. Another park- and- ride site was planned in Ebbsfleet with a capacity for 9,0. To get spectators to Eton Dorney, four park- and- ride schemes were set up.[6. Olympic rings marked on a street, indicating that the lane was reserved for the use of Olympic athletes and staff. Tf. L defined a network of roads leading between venues as the Olympic Route Network; roads connecting between all of the Olympic venues located within London.
Olympic Sponsors - The Olympic Partner Programme. The Olympic Games are one of the most effective international marketing platforms in the world, reaching billions of people in over 2. Support from the business community is crucial to the staging of the Games and the operations of every organisation within the Olympic Movement. Revenue generated by commercial partnerships accounts for more than 4. Olympic revenues and partners provide vital technical services and product support to the whole of the Olympic Family. Each level of sponsorship entitles companies to different marketing rights in various regions, category exclusivity and the use of designated Olympic images and marks.